Vilna Gaon - Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman

Vilna Gaon - Rabbi Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman

Eliyahu ben Shlomo Zalman - the Gaon of Vilna - the הגר"א - was born in the city of Selz, which is close to Brisk in Lithuania, on the 15th of Nisan 15 (April 23, 1720), and died in Vilna on the 19th of Tishrei 1797 (October 9, 1797). He is well known Also in the following nicknames: the Gaon of Vilna (Yiddish: Der Vilner Gaon), the Hasidic Gaon and even simply - the Gaon - the Gaon Rabbi Eliyahu. He was a judge, a Talmudist, a critic and a Kabbalist grammarian and a man of Eshkolot, who stood out at an exceptional level in the latter period as a supreme rabbinical authority. The Gaon from Vilna was great in the Bible, Gemara and Kabbalah, an original and central judge, and knowledgeable in the sciences. He was known for his unusual perseverance. The Vilna Gaon avoided going to Farid as a rabbinic servant in Vilna and somewhere else, from the point of view of his desire to avoid honor, publicity and dominance over the public. He was one of the ideological leaders of the opposition to Hasidism in Eastern Europe.

Shlomo Zalman, father of the Vilna Gaon, is the son of Rabbi Issachar Ber, son of Rabbi Eliya Hasid, son of Rabbi Moshe Kramer, who was Abbe Beit Din in Vilna and died in 1688. While he was a boy, his ancestors came with him to Vilna, when he was about seven years old, he preached in the Great Bichan. which his father taught him and it was a wonder. He also studied with Rabbi Moshe Margalit, author of the commentary "Peni Moshe" on the Jerusalemite. When he reached the age of ten, he bought him a friend, and again he did not study with a rabbi and did not study in a yeshiva. When he was 12 years old, according to the author of "Aliyot Eliyahu", "all the seven wisdoms in the purpose of subtlety and truth" already came among him, "and every rascal did not rape her". Already a young man, he married Hana daughter Yehuda Leib of Kaidan (1724-1782). His wife made sure to exempt her husband from taking care of the family, so that he could devote his time to studying. After her death, he asked to engrave on her tombstone: "She did not assume value and value. There is no way or way to praise her." Later he married Gitel, daughter of Meir Luntz, from Chlem in Poland, who was a widow.

At the age of 20, he went on a journey through Poland and Germany, passing through Lissa, Berlin and Amsterdam. He returned to Vilna in 1745. Over the years he lived in Vilna, but consistently refused to serve in an official rabbinical position that would interfere with his studies. Despite this, the Vilna community, which saw respect for itself in his residence in the city, gave him a small monthly allowance for his livelihood. The Gaon of Vilna was one of the exemplary men of the first generations, and after the Alfasi and the Rambam we can say there was no great sage like him, and that is why he is called a genius, nicknames of the ancient geniuses before the Alfasi.

According to his method of learning the Torah, the sage warned his students not to multiply in nonsense that is not the true learning, and sometimes he is a cantor and against the truth. The Gaon showed his greatness in the Torah by criticizing his findings and determining the correct version. In this he was different from the students before him, and was a model for those who came after him. This approach of his was contrary to the prohibition that Rabbeinu Tam forbade proofreading the books and changing the formulas.

A forty-year-old man began to study the books of the Ari - האר"י. His knowledge of Zohar Tikunim and Sefer Yetzira and Sifra Datsniוta can be seen from his commentaries and comments on them. Since he started dealing with the occult, Bangla didn't just write what his students heard from him. His path in general learning was: the Bible according to the grammar with the flavors of the Tanach  Mishnah series according to correct versions, Gemara with Rashi and Tosafot, Arba Turim and the Tosefta. His oral proficiency was very great, and he said that it is obligatory for every student To learn at least one treatise by heart, so that he does not cancel his mind while walking on the road. The Magid of Dubna was called to him from time to time, especially in his old age, and he amused himself with his well-known proverbs.

The Gaon wished to immigrate to Israel at the end of his days, and traveled to the city of Koenigsberg, from where he sent a letter to his home "Leaves for medicine" full of morality and fear of God. He suddenly changed his mind and returned to his home, saying that he did not have permission from heaven to go to Israel. The reasons for canceling his trip are unknown. The effect of this event was the immigration to Israel of a new generation of supporters of his concept at the beginning of the 19th century. 

The Gra writes 54 books in the vast expanse of creditors. And these are:

1. A. His commentaries on the Tanach
"Ederet Eliyahu" is a commentary on the Torah, to put the scriptures on their plain so that there is no redundant letter, and to explain the double words, especially in the Torah Torah book, and also in the hints and secrets of the Torah. "Commentary to the Book of Proverbs" . "Tana Debi Eliyahu", "Commentary on Jonah", "Commentary on Habakkuk and the Chronicles", "Commentaries on Isaiah up to chapter 13", "Elijah's Word to Job up to chapter 7", "Commentary on the Book of Esther" . "The shape of the land" includes the border passages for Joshua and the building of the house in Kings and Ezekiel.

2. On the Mishnah and Tosefta
"Eliyahu's Years", Commentaries and Updates on the Zeraim Mishnayat, "Eliyahu Raba" Commentary on the Pure Mishnayat, "Commentary on the Mishnayat from the Allusions of the Scriptures", "Commentary on the Mishnat Erugat and Glosses to the 2 Medots of R. Yossi HaGalili", "Ghagahot on the Tosefta" Seder Zareim Moed and the order of women, "Terat HaKodesh" edited commentary on the order of purity with glosses called Zar Zahav, "Treatment of Fathers and Tractate Smalls and Androgynous Commentary" from the Tosefta Zereim with its glosses...

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