Avraham Ibn Ezra great commentator of the Tanach

Avraham Ibn Ezra great commentator of the Tanach

Avraham Ibn Ezra (1092/3 - 1167), who is also known as ראב"ע, was born in 1092 in the city of Toledo, Spain, and died (1167) in Calahorra, Spain. Avraham Ibn Ezra is an impressive and famous figure in the history of Judaism and Spanish Judaism in particular. He explains and criticizes , poet and philosopher; and there are different opinions about his death: some say he died in Rome a few years before or after. It is not known if he was a scion of the distinguished "Ibn Ezra" family from Granada. Raba himself does not mention anything about his family. Raba was the author of many books, but the most famous of all is his commentary on the Torah and the Prophets. In the books of philosophy he was a close friend of R. Shlomo ben Gvirol and both of them held the foundations of Platonic philosophy.

Avraham Ibn Ezra added opinions and innovations about them in details about the nature of the deity, order and the progress of the world. According to the ראב"ע, the human soul is composed of three parts: the soul and the soul. The soul is the noble supreme wisdom from the world of the intellect, the spirit is the power of sensory and emotional achievement and resides in the heart, and the soul is the vital force found in every living being. According to the Raba (ראב"ע), the choice is limited only to the educated who know a higher opinion And not for the common man who is a "prisoner of lust" and has not left the circle of the star system that influences him, because it depends on the destiny and not the choice. He composed many poems and poems that were included in the prayer.

Later, Ibn Ezra also traveled to the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. During his wanderings in Morocco, he became friends with Rabbi Yosef ben Imran, the dayan of the city of Sigilmasa, and stayed with him for a long time. Rabbi Avraham expressed admiration for his wisdom, and wrote a number of poems praising him. While in Tunisia, he became friends with Rabbi Shmuel Ibn Jame, the father of the court in the city of Gabs, lived in his house for a long time, and was praised in the song: "Ari rose among the flock and became a redeemer". Among his other friends was Ayyub Shlomo Ibn Almu'alem, a poet and physician at the court of the King of Morbiton in the city of Marrakesh, and as usual he wrote a number of poems in his honor. After the disturbances in the Jewish communities in Spain and North Africa, during the reign of al-Muwahidun, Rabbi Avraham composed the lament Ah Yard Ali Sephard, in which he lamented the destruction of the communities, which he divided one by one.

In his forties, Rabbi Avraham left Spain, and traveled through the Jewish communities in Southern Europe and the West. The exact year in which he left Spain is unknown, but it seems that he left for his wanderings around the year (1145) or even earlier in the year (1140). In 1145, Raba lived in Rome, Italy. From the city of Rome he migrated to the city of Salerno, where there was a large Jewish community. Rabbi Ibn Ezra was not received with respect by the Jews of Salerno, who did not appreciate his knowledge of the Bible and the sciences, and at the same time they received another person with great respect. After his stay in Italy, Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra moved to France and Provence, probably in the year 4558 (1148).

Due to his move to Europe, the stone Ezra encountered a different readership, which did not know the Greek and Arabic wisdom and approached the study of the Torah without familiarity with them. This lack of knowledge, in addition to the fact that his audience did not read Arabic and therefore could not read the writings of the geniuses of Babylon and the sages of Spain, caused Ibn Ezra to explain many of the foundations of the sciences of the time in his commentary and in books close to the commentary. Although Havan Ezra himself opposes the addition of these words in the commentary, it seems that Havan Ezra had no choice but to add these wisdoms as well. There are three interpretations of the Ezra Stone to the Torah: the short interpretation (on the entire Torah), the long interpretation (on Genesis and Exodus, sometimes called the 'other method') and the oral interpretation (on the passages of Vaishala and Yahi).

Commentary on the Torah and five scrolls, Isaiah, Teri Asar, Psalms, Job and Daniel. It appears from his words that he also wrote commentaries on other books in the Bible. The commentary attributed to him on Proverbs, Ezra, and Nehemiah was compiled by Rabbi Moshe Kimchi. A commentary on five scrolls was first compiled in Rome. His commentary on the Torah was compiled in two editions - a long and a short one, and the commentary we have is sometimes mixed , because he would repeat his books to correct them. In his commentary on the Torah he showed his greatness. In the introduction to the Torah he strongly criticized the Torah commentators who preceded him, and divided them into four divisions and said: Rabbi Shmuel ben Hafni and Rabbi Yitzchak Israel introduced philosophical opinions into their interpretations; And they spoiled the scriptures; the owners of the secret loaded hints and secrets that are far from the path of simplicity; and the owners of the legend turned their faces only to the sermon.

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